The co-existence of different transport stakeholders at interchanges and the necessity to make each of those systems interoperable with the others requires a coordinated approach through the cooperation of interchange stakeholders whose form can vary (institutional cooperation through conventions / informal cooperation). It takes place in different forms depending on the stage of interchange development (design, construction, operation, management). For example, a genuine dialogue between decision-makers and stakeholders takes place with the objective of influencing decisions, policies or programmes of action. It is aimed for instance at verifying the utility of a project, measuring the potential impacts on environment, and informing the public. Consultation with end-users is important to make the interchange user-friendly and to attract new users.
It can also come in the form of contractual agreements for better coordination, provision of data, and achievement of integrated approach in a project between stakeholders. This refers to the spatial management of the interchange zone and can include safety and security management, accessibility at the interchange or passenger information.
|NODES strategic objective||Contribution|
|Enhance accessibility and integration||++|
|Increase safety and security conditions||++|
|Increase economic viability and costs efficiency||++|
|Stimulate local economy||++|
|Increase environmental efficiency||++|
|Increase energy efficiency||++|
The Dutch government is the owner of the stations and infrastructure. Maintenance is carried out by the infrastructure manager, ProRail, which is responsible for all basic infrastructure of the train network including tunnels, electric cables, signals and stations. ProRail is also responsible for the train traffic management. The Netherlands Railways (NS) is the largest rail operator in the Netherlands and transports over 1.1 million travellers each day, with approximately 4,800 train trips on a network of about 2,100 kilometre of train track. NS has some 3,000 trains with around 260,000 seats. There are other train operators, yet all train services passing at Rotterdam Central, Utrecht central and DenBosch are run by NS. The commercial exploitation of the interchange is the responsibility of the NS, which includes NS Stations. NS Stations is a subsidiary of Netherlands Railways. NS Stations operates, develops and manages all train stations (about 402) in the Netherlands. NS Station is responsible for the following tasks: (1) Infrastructure and development; responsible for the development of new, and the redevelopment of existing stations and surrounding areas; (2) retail and services; responsible for the commercial retail services offered, and the continuous improvement and facilitating of customer travel from their point of departure to their final destination, partly or fully covered by the train services of the NS; (3) Station operation management; responsible for the operation management and maintenance of the stations and related property. The railway police ceased being part of NS in 2000 and is merged with the National Police.
The different roles and responsibilities are defined in the Train Network Act of 2003. A new concession for the operation of rail services and commercial exploitation was awarded to NS in December 2014. In terms of additional transport services, NS Stations works with Greenwheels (car-sharing provider) and is available at all three stations Rotterdam, DenBosch and Utrecht Central. (Greenwheels is present at 90 stations in total). In terms of parking, NS works with Q-Park. Q-Park handles the management of the paid parking services at NS stations. About 42% of travellers come to the station by bike. In terms of cycle parking, NS Stations cooperates with the Municipalities, ProRail, and the Ministry of Transport to manage this huge logistic issue of bicycle parking and management. NS stations manage some 100 secure bicycle parking areas (including at Rotterdam, Utrecht and DenBosch). NS Stations is also responsible for operating public transport bicycles, scooters and electric bicycles. The two latter items can be rented at larger stations, such as Rotterdam and Utrecht Central. In addition to private taxis, NS Stations also offers a NS taxi services (NS Zonetaxi). In this respect, NS Stations works with the national taxi organisation and the various Municipalities. Every station has a station manager who is responsible for the overall organisation. There are several taskforces that have regular meetings to deal with the various daily and medium-term issues (e.g. safety, specific topics, etc.)
Denver Union Station Project Authority (DUSPA)
A cooperative for the redevelopment of Denver Union Station called the DUSPA is in charge of managing the redevelopment project. The Regional Transportation District (RTD, the regional authority operating public transit services in eight of the twelve counties in the Denver-Aurora-Boulder area in Colorado), the city of Denver and five other organizations are part of the cooperative. In May 2002, the Denver Union Station project began when RTD, City and County of Denver, the Colorado Department of Transportation and the Denver Regional Council of Governments, partnered to develop a Master Plan and conduct an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Union Station. Work began in December 2012.
The method is considered extremely relevant for the larger interchanges and interchange areas. The tool could be fine-tuned to also allow the consideration at smaller interchange. In which case it should include the notion of scale of the interchange and the justification of a subsidiarity, department, team or taskforce.
The cost for the use of the tool should be in relation to the potential benefits. The creation of a subsidiarity engenders additional management cost, yet might also lead to significant additional resources (commercial exploitation, additional travellers).
Denver Union Station http://www.rtd-fastracks.com/dus_1