Business case for the integration of bike and car sharing services

This tool helps the landowner evaluate the availability of bike-sharing and car-sharing facilities at the interchange and the potential for contractual agreements with the service-provider. It supports the investigation of the most appropriate business case to integrate bike-sharing and car-sharing services at the interchange.

Bike-sharing and car-sharing facilities can significantly increase the available opportunities for transport at an interchange. The drop-off point location and the network coverage are crucial factors for the success and cost-efficiency of the scheme. The implementation and deployment of such systems is complementary to the core systems of a modern city’s transport network.

The facilities can be managed in a number of different forms such as:

  1. a)       Management by the transport authority to facilitate this integration of public transport with soft modes and alternative modes, such as car-sharing, carpooling, etc.
  2. b)       Management by a mixed public-private partnership
  3. c)       Sub-contraction to a private entity

Car-sharing and bike-sharing services are mobility services intended for city-dwellers. While the bike-share services target short duration and short distance travel, car-sharing may respond to travel needs that range from 30 minutes to 48 hours, either covering short or longer distances. These services are complementary to the public transport network. The stations are located in public spaces, especially at interchanges or close to major tram or metro stations.

Access to car-sharing requires prior registration. The bike-sharing service can be used by anyone with a credit card. For subscribers and regular users in some urban districts, these services are accessible through a subscription that can be charged on the interoperable transport card. Implementation of these car-sharing and bike-sharing services is quick, requires minor developments and takes up little public space. In order to offer an increased number of modes of sustainable transport to users, local authorities contribute to the integration and financing of bike-sharing and car-sharing services through contractual agreements between real estate owners and the service-provider in the form of subsidies by making real estate available or by taking part in the construction. With regard to the integration of bike-share services more specifically, the Transport Organising Authority may sign an advertising contract requiring the service-provider to pay royalties for the use of public space through an agreement for temporary occupation of that space.

In terms of implementation time, one year should be counted from the government (advertising) contract being signed and one year of initial works (plus the time for the construction of new stations over the following months/years).

Concerning the integration of car-sharing services, generally through the creation of a cooperative society of members and subscribers, two years of studies should be counted and one year to implement the provision (plus the time for the construction of new stations over the following months/years). Two types of car-sharing co-exist:

  • Stationary service: pick-up and return the vehicle to the same parking space;
  • Free-floating service: pick-up the vehicle from parking space A and return it to parking space B

It should also be noted that the electrical distribution operator must be involved from the start of the project if it includes hybrid electrical vehicles or making charging stations available for electric vehicles.


A number of key issues can be identified for local authorities when implementing public bicycle-sharing schemes.

  • Limitation of operating costs.
  • Reduction of exposure to risk of vandalism.
  • Reduction of maintenance and control costs.
  • Proposal of an integrated transport offer.

Some conditions to be met for success are:

  • A dense network of cycle stations.
  • Fleet size of at least 150 bicycles.
  • Efficient service and communication.
  • Total cost of service to include the number of journeys generated, plus the theft and vandalism risk.

NODES strategic objectiveContribution
Enhance accessibility and integration ++
Enhance intermodality +
Enhance liveability +
Increase safety and security conditions 0
Increase economic viability and costs efficiency 0
Stimulate local economy 0
Increase environmental efficiency 0
Increase energy efficiency 0

Good practice

The city of Bremen can be considered as leader in developing so-called ‘mobility points’ in Germany. There are currently over 40 “MObil.punkte” that since 2003 have connected the local public transport system with several car-sharing providers that offer both conventional and electric car-sharing. Typically, these are the components of the mobility points:

  • Bus & tram stop
  • Taxi
  • Bike stand
  • Cambio key-locker
  • 5 CarSharing car parks

Legal structure of MObil.punkte

ƒA special use permit after the building application has been obtained, based on the public interest of intermodal links between public transport, bike and taxi. The applicant and operator is the city-owned parking facility company, BREPARK, which rents out parking spaces to car-sharing provider Cambio. As a prerequisite to this rental agreement, Cambio must have been awarded the “CarSharing” eco-label to distinguish it from other car rental companies.

Other examples in Germany

The implementation of mobility points in Bremen has inspired other German cities to follow suit. One example is the “switch” mobility point at Hamburg Wandsbek Markt station, where rental cars and city bikes are located directly adjacent to metro, bus and taxi connections. Bike and ride facilities with lockers, as well as a long-distance coach station, complement the multimodal offer. In Leipzig, a trial project is currently testing the implementation of 20 mobility stations, connecting tram or bus to city bikes, car sharing, and taxi. At Berlin Südkreuz station, an intelligent mobility station is being implemented.


Tisséo-SMTC – Public Transport Authority of the Greater Toulouse: integration of bike-sharing and car-sharing services.

The transport smart card called “Pastel” gives access to the Tisséo public transport network as well as to the “Citiz” car-sharing service and the “VélôToulouse” bike and ride service.


Bike sharing – Nextbike

A communal consortium, made up of three lead partners – Regionalverband Ruhr (regional authority) as general coordinator, Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (transport authority), and the City of Dortmund – sets out a cooperation agreement regulated by German public law for the provision of bike-sharing. An operational contract has been signed with bike-sharing provider, nextbike. A service level agreement ensures the quality management of the service. Individual agreements are made for local bike stations. It is essential to have strategic cooperation with individual public transport operators (8 in total). Integration occurs at multiple levels – infrastructure, system, tariff, and communication.

Benefits for public transport operators are: • Extension of mobility portfolio • Increase of catchment areas of bus and train stations improves the attractiveness of public transport system • Flexible buffer for peak demand • Scope for design of third-party mobility services within the service area

Potential interchange performance improvement

The integration of bike-sharing and car-sharing services can increase the attractiveness of an interchange by offering an increased number of transport modes at the interchange. This gives users the option to choose the most appropriate mode, according to their needs.

If well managed and properly rated, the bike-sharing / car-sharing service will:

  • Increase customer loyalty to a combined mobility offer (tram + bus + bike + car-sharing etc) through pricing, ticketing and marketing
  • Generate new trips with a very low carbon footprint
  • Complete the Public Transport offer in time (24/7 service) and space (where the PT offer is low)
  • Attract new customers to combined mobility (students, young people, car drivers switching to e-bikes, etc.)
  • Increase the catchment area of stations


The local authority provides the real estate to the service-provider and takes responsibility for project-related works (e.g. installation of urban furniture) while the service provider bears the costs for acquisition of the urban furniture and vehicles, the system operating costs and furniture maintenance costs.

Initial investment can come from a number of local authorities or from subsidies.

Car-sharing or bike-sharing involves the use of a single car or bike by many users, thus allowing for economies of scale regarding service costs, cost of acquisition, etc. However there are additional maintenance costs for the facilities and the personnel needed to support the whole operation.


BiTiBi Project

MObil.punkt Bremen


Tisseo, Toulouse The Tisséo Pastel Card

Tisseo, Toulouse Toulouse car sharing scheme, Citiz

Tisseo, Toulouse Toulouse bike sharing scheme, VélôToulouse